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These are some of the resources in the web about the first circumnavigation of the world

 

 

Ferdinand Magellan was brought up in the Portuguese royal court and entered into royal service but later transferred his services to Spain. He set sail in the Victoria from Seville in 1519, with the intention of reaching the East Indies by a westerly route. He sailed throughthe long and tortuos strait, subsequently named after him, at the tip of South America. when they emerged into a peaceful new ocean to the west, he named it the Pacific. It took more than 3 months of hardship before they reached the Philippines in 1521, where he was killed in battle with the islanders. His companions returned to Seville in 1522, completing the voyage under del Cano. However, Magellan and his Malay slave, Enrique de Malacca, are considered the first circumnavigators of the globe since they had previously once sailed from the Philippines to Europe.

 

http://www.btinternet.com/~vilabranca/sun.htm

 

 

The good fortune of reaching the Pacific Ocean did not make the travels easier. Suffering amongst the crew members grew as they began running out of food. Extreme hunger caused the men to eat such things as rats, leather, maggots, and sawdust just to stay alive. Along with hunger, scurvy became prevalent. At least twenty men died from complications due to starvation. March 6 brought with it hope when the ships reached the island of Guam. This hope was short-lived when the crew had to defend themselves from the attacks of the native peoples. Food and water from other nearby islands did replenish their bodies and spirits. Magellan's Malaysian slave hailed a group of islanders in their native tongue, giving evidence that Magellan had reached the Orient. While in the Philippines, the sailors converted many natives to Christianity. These conversions would lead to more problems than anticipated

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The First Circumnavigation of the Globe, begun in 1519, was an attempt to prove that the coveted Spice Islands, or Moluccas, were actually property of Spain. Finding a direct route between the Spice Islands and Spanish Peru would be argument enough for ownership of these lands. Ferdinand Magellan set out from Spain on this voyage with five ships, but the voyage was more difficult than expected. Disease, bad weather, and loss of ships to Portuguese attack hampered the voyage. On April 27, 1521, Magellan was killed in the Philippine Islands attempting to convert a native chief to Christianity. With only two ships remaining, the crew continued the voyage making it back to Seville, Spain with only 18 crew members on a single ship. The first circumnavigation of the globe had been completed.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Magellan attempted to receive funds from the King of Portugal, but he would not fund this voyage because he saw no need for such a frivolous expenditure. Magellan then turned to King Charles I (also known as Holy Roman Emperor Charles V) of Spain for support. Magellan convinced the king that this voyage would be useful to show that the Spice Islands were property of Spain, not Portugal. The dispute over these islands was significant because the possession of these islands would bring vast wealth to the owner. King Charles I saw this as an opportunity to gain status and wealth for his country and gave Magellan his funding.

 

 

 

Setting sail on September 20, 1519, Magellan began his voyage with a crew of 237 men of doubtful reliability on five tiny ships. After three long months of sea travel, Magellan anchored near present day Rio de Janeiro. The ships were restocked and the crew traded with the friendly natives, but the rest was short-lived. Cautious because of being in Portuguese waters, Magellan quickly resumed the voyage on a path towards the Great South Sea of the Orient. Magellan believed he had found the Spice Islands and exclaimed, "Montevideo, I see a mountain," but it was only the large delta of the Rio de la Plata. Disappointed, the crew sailed on.

Sailing farther and farther south, the weather became ever colder. Freezing nights and cool days left the crew in serious danger of frostbite and serious illness. Along with the temperatures, the spirits of the crew also fell. Three would-be mutineers were executed and two were marooned for attempting to take control of the ships and to end the voyage. Things became worse when one of the five ships smashed into the beach. All the crew survived, but the supplies and ship were total losses. In October of 1520, a lookout spotted the strait, later named the Straits of Magellan, and the Pacific Ocean was straight ahead.

The good fortune of reaching the Pacific Ocean did not make the travels easier. Suffering amongst the crew members grew as they began running out of food. Extreme hunger caused the men to eat such things as rats, leather, maggots, and sawdust just to stay alive. Along with hunger, scurvy became prevalent. At least twenty men died from complications due to starvation. March 6 brought with it hope when the ships reached the island of Guam. This hope was short-lived when the crew had to defend themselves from the attacks of the native peoples. Food and water from other nearby islands did replenish their bodies and spirits. Magellan's Malaysian slave hailed a group of islanders in their native tongue, giving evidence that Magellan had reached the Orient. While in the Philippines, the sailors converted many natives to Christianity. These conversions would lead to more problems than anticipated.

During an attempt by Magellan to coerce the chief of a nearby island called Mactan to Christianity, the native leader became upset. This chief wanted nothing to do with Christianity, but Magellan, against the advice of his officers, continued to push the man. The chief angrily ordered the attack of Magellan and his crew by his warriors. Most of Magellan's men fled quickly to the ships while Magellan slowly backed away towards safety. Wearing full body armor, with the exception of his feet, Magellan felt he was safe against the spears of the natives. He was wrong. A native warrior drove a spear into Magellan's foot, wounding him. The rest of the men attacked, killing him on the 27th of April, 1521.

During a previous navigation, Magellan had traveled to the Philippine islands through the conventional trading routes around the Cape of Good Hope. Though not in a single continuous voyage, Magellan had traveled completely around the earth on a ship. This accomplishment made Magellan extremely famous amongst sailors and throughout all of Europe.

With the loss of their leader, Juan Sebastian Del Cano, a man who had supported mutiny while near South America, took control of the ships and continued on towards home. During this point of the voyage, only two ships and 47 men remained. In December of 1521, the ship Trinidad fell to the Portuguese, leaving the ship Victoria as the last remnant of the initial voyage. Severe storms, adverse currents, and Portuguese attacks drained the men. Staying as far away from the Cape of Good Hope as possible, for fear of attack, the Victoria rounded Africa and headed towards Europe.

Lack of supplies caused the unintentional stop at the Cape Verde Islands. When the Portuguese got wind that the Spanish travelers were trading in their sphere of influence, they found every man who went ashore and captured them. Del Cano was forced to leave without the much needed supplies and with barely enough men to sail the ship. Finally, on September 8th, 1522, the Victoria bore 18 survivors into the port of Seville, Spain. The circumnavigation of the globe was complete.


Notes:


Bibliography:

Debenham, Frank; Discovery and Exploration: An Atlas History; (1960; Doubleday & Co.; Garden City, NY.)
Rugoff, Milton; The Great Travellers Vol. 1; (1960; Simon & Schuster; New York City.)
Villiers, Captain Alan; Men, Ships, and the Sea; (1962; National Geographic Society; Washington, DC.) http://www.adventure.com/encyclopedia/general/movies/magellan.mov

 


Edited by: Steven M. Hoden, shoden@northpark.edu
Researched by: Joshua E. VerHage, jverhage@northpark.edu
Written by: Tait M. Swenson, tswenson@northpark.edu
March 24, 1998

 

http://campus.northpark.edu/history//WebChron/WestEurope/Magellan.html

 

Did Magellan get home safely?

No, for he was killed in a fight with islanders in the Philippines. Although he had masterminded the first expedition to sail around the world, he did not complete the voyage himself. In fact, the first person to sail around the world was a Malaysian, who had travelled back to Europe with Magellan many years earlier. Later, he accompanied Magellan as an interpreter on the circumnavigation

http://www.nmm.ac.uk/education/fact_first.html

Forty-four years later, the Spanish Miguel Lopez de Legaspi and Fray Andres de Urdaneta set again an expedition to Cebu. Their arrival bombarded the defenses of Rajah Tupas and destroyed his village. Legaspi reestablished Spain's sovereignity.He named the island Villa del Santisimo Nombre de Jesus after the famous miraculous image of Senor Santo Nino de Cebu which was found by Juan Camus, one of Legaspi's soldiers in one of the burnt houses

 

http://cebu.filonline.com/

Why "Magellan's Log"?

Because it doesn't exist. And thereby hangs this dog-wagging tale:

In 1517 Magellan sailed west from Portugal with five ships expecting to arrive in either India are the Philippines and then back in Portugal sooner rather than later, certainly sooner than four years.

Well. In 1521 one ship hove into view off Portugal, the Victoria, with 27 aboard. Magellan was not among them. He made it as far as the Philippines, where he undertook an ill-advised (though not atypical--these Europeans, will they never learn?) attempt to convert the heathens he found there to the Way of the Cross. The heathens made short work of Magellan and a number of his guys.

That's all the stuff of 8th grade geography. Now for the back-story.

It seems that a few years earlier, the ever-venturesome Magellan had sailed east from Portugal and got as far as the Maluccas, islands just west of the Philippines (remember that detail; it turns out to be important) in search of spices (in terms of economic value, spices were to the 16th century what cocaine has been to the 20th). He picked up a shipload of spices, along with a native slave (these Europeans!), whom he dubbed Enrique. He took the spices and Enrique back to Portugal with him. Hail, the conquering hero.

A few years pass. Ferdinand proposes his trip to the west. Backers fall all over themselves, which results in five splendidly outfitted ships. And off they went, and of course Ferdinand had his bestboy, Enrique in tow.

It took three years to get down the coast of South America and through the horrific storms and treacherous channels off the Tierra del Fuego (which Magellan named because they kept seeing Indian fires burning on the cliffs at night). At that point, as he entered the Pacific (which he also named--mis-named, as it turned out, of course--because they happened to enter the "new" ocean on a calm day), he thought India was just a few days' sail away. These Europeans. Aren't they something.

Three months later land had still not been sighted. The crew members who'd not died of scurvy or starved were reduced to eating leather binding holding barrels together.

Landfall at last. And the only way Magellan knew where he was--which was actually the Philippines--was because Enrique, to Enrique's great delight, could understand a lot of the language of the natives--the selfsame ones who would shortly dispatch F.M. Surely that moment, when they went ashore, the moment when the natives spoke and Enrique understood and answered, is one of the great moments of human history, certainly equal to Neil Armstrong's opening lunar line.

After his death, the little fleet continued westward, arriving shortly at the Maluccas. The truth then is that Magellan did NOT (these Europeans!) make the first trip around the world. That honor belongs to the now forgotten non-European, Enrique.

http://texaschapbookpress.com/meaning_of_title.htm

Once through the strait, Magellan landed at the island that
guarded its entrance, Limasawa.  Eight inhabitants sailed out to
the Trinidad in a small boat.  On orders from the Captain-General,
his Moluccan slave, Enrique, hailed them.  In a moment that must
have seemed frozen in time, it became clear that the men in the
approaching boat understood the words of the Moluccan perfectly.
     Their language was being spoken to them by a man on a huge
ship that had come to them from the east.  The linguistic globe--
even if not necessarily the physical globe--had been
circumnavigated.  A man who had originated in these parts had
traveled across Asia and around Africa to Europe as a slave, and
had now returned home by the Americas and the Pacific.  Enrique de
Molucca may well have been, strictly speaking, the first of
humankind to circumnavigate the world; he was never to be honored
for so doing.
 
(note: see V DeJusus latest research on this harbor)
 

     http://www.millersv.edu/~columbus/data/art/WINCHE01.ART

-History of Cartography

 

On March the 26th , after crossing many of the islands of the Philippines, Magellan arrives to Sumatra. A slave called Enrique, who Magellan had found during another trip through that area, could understand perfectly the natives. Time for discoveries is over for Magellan, he has just arrived to Portuguese waters.

http://www.cerveracentre.com/igemaelin.htm

 

     The starving sailors arrived the island of Guam after more than six months at sea, and then moved on to the Philippines. While in the Philippines, Magellan discovered that his servant, Enrique, could understand the native language. Magellan realized that Enrique was the first person to have traveled completely around the world.

http://www.mrdowling.com/704-magellan.html

When Magellan first visited the Spice Islands while sailing under the Portuguese flag, he recruited a male servant whom he named Enrique who remained with him for years and accompanied him when he sailed for Spain. There are some who now claim that Enrique was a Filipino originally from Cebu and was, in fact, the first person to sail around the world, having preceded Magellan to the Spice Islands where he was recruited by the famous navigator.

While that debate is going on, there is no argument over the fact that in 1960, the U. S. Navy's largest submarine, the USS Triton, powered by the atom, entered the history books by circumnavigating the globe in Magellan's wake in two months -- submerged! On that epic trip was a young Navy man, born in Agat, Guam, his name is Edward Carbullido.

Magellan's incredible expeditions which proved that the earth was round is still recognized as one of the greatest sea navigational achievements of all time, if not the greatest. Our little island of Guam and our ancestors played a role, however briefly, in that great Age of Discovery that produced such extraordinary visionaries as Columbus, Vespucci, and Magellan. Their great courage and accomplishments changed the world.

© Copyright, 2001, Bisita Guam

Having thus honored his dead leader, Del Cano accepted from King Charles the ultimate reward of the expedition: a coat of arms depicting the globe and bearing the motto Primus circumdedisti me, "You first circumnavigated me." Yet historians have never been able to decide which man rightfully deserves that honor. Was it Magellan who, some say, had already visited the East Indies as a youth? Was it his humble slave Black Enrique? Or was it Del Cano? But the loyal Antonio Pigafetta, who survived to write the story of the voyage, had no doubts. Of Magellan he stated flatly: "The best proof of his genius is that he circumnavigated the world, none having preceded him."

Source: Discovery-The World's Greatest Explorer:Their Triumph and Tragedy by Readers Digest.

Magellan, Ferdinand (c. 1480–1521)

Portuguese navigator. In 1519 he set sail in the Victoria from Seville with the intention of reaching the East Indies by a westerly route. He sailed through the Strait of Magellan at the tip of South America, crossed an ocean he named the Pacific, and in 1521 reached the Philippines, where he was killed in a battle with the islanders. His companions returned to Seville in 1522, completing the voyage under del Cano.

Magellan was brought up at court and entered the royal service, but later transferred his services to Spain. He and his Malay slave, Enrique de Malacca, are considered the first circumnavigators of the globe, since they had once sailed from the Philippines to Europe.


Magellan, Ferdinand

 

Magellan, Ferdinand

 

Cano, Juan Sebastian del

exploration, history of

Magellan, Strait of


From The Hutchinson Family Encyclopedia.
© Copyright Helicon Publishing Ltd 2000. All rights reserved.

 

 

 

 

ROCK THE BOAT
A Review of Longitude by Carlos Cortes UP Press. 1998. 410 pages. P350
By Rachel Anne Calabia

      With the current trend of postcolonial Philippine literature in English, what else should come in with the tides from Cebu but Longitude, a re-writing of Magellan’s search for the Spice Islands? From a host of novels like Alfred Yuson’s Great Philippine Jungle Energy Café to Ninotcka Rosca’s Twice Blessed, Cortes’s Longitude neatly fits in the category of counter-narratives and alternative histories that are now in vogue. The novel is possibly the twisted infant of Carlos Fuentes’s The Orange Tree and Umberto Eco’s The Island of the Day Before with its preoccupation with colonial conquest and maritime travails – but perhaps these comparison would hinder someone in his or her reading of the novel. This novel certainly deserves to be read for its many merits, and not for any similarity to past masterpieces.

      Longitude starts with the precarious protestations of its author regarding the provenance of the document he translated from Portuguese , a document whose forgery is a tale in itself. Cortes’s insistence on the falsity of history cannot be denied, and as his supposed patron said, “The best version of Magellan’s story hadn’t been told by any writer. It had been sung by Yoyoy Villame.”

      From that point onwards, Longitude plunges headlong into the journey of Ferdinand Magellan, his search for his strait, the Spice Islands, and longitude, with all its laborious details. Indeed, the novel is as long and as slow-moving as the original trip must have been. Yet it is this love of detail that breathes life into the realism of the narrative, if only to further expose itself as a fictive account.

      The novel’s unreliable narrator Enrique provides the commentary throughout, except for a few portions told from Magellan’s point of view. As Magellan’s Malay interpreter and as the only Asian on board, Enrique’s subordinate position is awkward and he is ambivalent about his role in the deception and subjugation of the people he meets. Enrique’s loyalty is only to himself and to Magellan, and when his master dies he sees nothing wrong with turning against the racist officers who remain in the fleet. Enrique’s only desire is to come home, or a place that he can fashion as his home, after seeing the hypocrisy and complicity of the Western world and the defeat of his native Melacca.

      In Longitude, colonization becomes a sublime act that is even more terrifying, as Magellan is shown to be the victim of political intrigue and ridicule at the European courts and his desperate attempt to salvage his nautical career is at the expense of the natives of Patagonia and Cebu. Nevertheless, Magellan’s character is surprisingly sympathetic and noble – making his determination to make Catholics out of everyone an act of a religious fanatic. His religious fervor is depicted to be his downfall in Mactan.

      Cortes takes the time out to depict the actions of the local chieftains as shrewd and calculated. Scared of a repeat of the Melacca massacre that had resulted in Enrique’s enslavement, their acceptance of the cross and of baptism is used to buy Raja Humabon time to gather allies against the Armada. This is a direct counter-narrative against dominant historical discourse that suggests that the Cebuano rajas and datus collaborated blindly with the colonizers. Meanwhile, Lapu-lapu is depicted as a fierce and headstrong datu who bows down to no one.

      The recurring metaphor of Longitude is Enrique’s constant connection between the ship board deaths of the Armada with human sacrifice to the gods of the lands they visit. Each death becomes more of a sacrifice due to the rank of the officer – which makes Magellan’s death at Mactan inevitable, and even a little anti-climatic.

      The novel is peppered with inconstant spelling of names and places, making it historically accurate for its inexactitude-the signs of the novel is not necessarily what is signified. Longitude also tackles the problems of translation, as Enrique often grapples with trying to translate Western concepts into his native tongue, which is also translated by the raja’s adviser. Enrique uses his multi-lingual communication skills as his meal ticket and as his source of power: he retains and omits what pleases his listeners.

      Enrique’s many languages leave him in a quandary, however, for he is fully aware that his knowledge sets him apart from others. He feels that he cannot return to his native land, for he has also absorbed much of the Portuguese and Spanish culture and a single code, so the novel only ends with his solitary reflections.

      While others may be turned off by the novel’s premise or its length, Longitude raises many questions and even takes part in the historical debate that surrounds Magellan’s journey by taking sides in certain controversial dates and places. The brilliance of the novel’s depth and complexity sinks in and remains, long after the final page is read.

      The search for longitude is a search for what remains unknown and unsaid. Longitude, by literally rocking the dominant discourse beneath Magellan’s boat, has the promise to rock conventional views of Philippine history. Whether it has the same effect on other readers is still uncharted territory.

— Philippine Collegian, “Book Reviews,” November 23, 1998


On March the 26th , after crossing many of the islands of the Philippines, Magellan arrives to Sumatra. A slave called Enrique, who Magellan had found during another trip through that area, could understand perfectly the natives. Time for discoveries is over for Magellan, he has just arrived to Portuguese waters

http://www.cerveracentre.com/igemaelin.htm

One month later they sighted the Philippines, and Magellan felt like he had been raised from the dead, so he named the archipelago "San Lazaro" (St. Lazarus), after the resurrected friend of Jesus. No European had seen these islands before, but Magellan knew he was close to the Moluccas, because his personal Moluccan slave, Enrique, understood some of the language of the natives

http://www.dynahost.net/education/berosus2/seasia/sea03.html

One of the first things the Spaniards learned about the Visayans was that they were good drinkers. Magellan had no sooner landed in Homonhon, when people from nearby Suluan presented him a jarful of what Pigafetta recorded as uraca--that is, arak, the Malay-Arabic word for distilled liquor. In Limasawa, Pigafetta drank from the same cup as Rajah Kolambu, and his translator, Enrique de Malacca, got so drunk he wasn't of much use; a few days later, the local harvest was delayed while Kolambu and his brother Awi slept off a hangover. In Cebu, Pigafetta drank palm wine, tuba nga nipa, straight from the jar with reed straws together with Rajah Humabon, but in Quipit he excused himself after one draught when Rajah Kalanaw and his companions finished a whole jar withour eating anything.

Looking for the Prehispanic Filipino
William Henry Scott, 152

÷ A SLAVE WAS THE FIRST CIRCUMNAVIGATOR

Who was the first person to circumnavigate our world? It wasn't Magellan who was killed midway through his historic voyage, while Christianizing the islanders at swordâs point. His expedition for the Spaniards was continued under the command of Juan Sebastian El Cano, with just a few survivors of the group that had set out three years before.

Were El Canoâs survivors the first persons to circumnavigate? No. There was a Malay 'slave' whom the Europeans called Enrique. He went into Magellanâs service when Magellan sailed from Portugal to the Indies on an earlier voyage. He was Magellanâs interpreter until he jumped ship in the Indies. He was the first human to leave home to go west and return home from the east ÷ and therefore the first circumnavigator.

L. Mark Lussky

Adventuress

Marina del Rey, California

for website about the International Date Line: