FIRST MAN TO
GO AROUND THE WORLD (draft)
A long time ago in the early 15th century, a young Malay in the Southwest Pacific had a destiny with history. The island nation around the Spice Islands in Southeast Asia was what this fated young boy called home. During this time of the Golden Age of Discovery, his history was being made.
This boy's story, however, begins half a world
away in Portugal. In the early part of the century, Prince Henry the
Navigator's fascination with exploration led to a base for sea exploration, an
observatory, and most importantly, a school for geographers and navigators. His
enthusiastic promotion laid the groundwork for the development of Portugal's
sea power and colonial empire. It was only a matter of time until his inspired
explorers sailed around the tip of South Africa, the Cape of Good Hope, (which,
unfortunately, occurred after the Prince's death.) This opened the way for
European exploration to the East. Following the path of Prince Henry's sea
captains, Ferdinand Magellan of Portugal was able to reach the Malakas Islands,
the desired Spice Islands. Up until then, the farthest east any European had
been was to Sumatran peninsula, with Marco Polo's famed overland journey
through central Asia. Magellan spent seven years on the Islands, brewing ideas
of new and more creative ways of reaching them. Fully understanding the
roundness of the world, he started to believe that he could reach the Spice
Islands from the opposite direction, westward. Upon his departure, Magellan
advised fellow Portuguese Francisco Serrao as Resident Officer of the Spice
Islands, with the intention of meeting him there again by arriving from the
But Magellan departed with idea of sailing west,
for the young boy of our story entered the explorer's life. Originally named
Trapobana, the young boy had traveled from his home island in the Malay
northeastern Archipelago to Malaca (near the present day Singapore) Quick and
intelligent, he became remarkably familiar with the region and learned the
local language in addition to his native dialect. The Portuguese had found the
islands only after the Muslims had dominated them and made Malaca the central
city for the spice-trading colony. Malaca was a market for nutmeg, cinnamon,
and cloves, as well as a market for slaves. Trapobana could have been considered
a street-smart kid of the bustling area, but he was still one of many Malay who
had been wandering about the entire archipelago for years. While in Malaca,
Magellan met the young, slender, and dark-skinned boy whose proficiency with
non-Native language and manners made him stand out from the rest of the people.
Already well traveled in the region, Trapobana could easily serve as an
interpreter and guide for his new project of journeying west. Magellan saw this
in the boy and, remembering Portuguese naval tradition that allowed him to
return with one captive slave, he took the boy along with his dream of
discovering new land. With Magellan as his master, Trapobana, given the new
Christian name Enrique, (after Prince Henry,) traveled west to Europe. The
crewmembers called him Black Henry because he was so much darker than them.
Others called him "muy ladino" because of his ability to learn and
speak many languages.
After stopping in India and Africa, in 1512,
Magellan returned to his old home and Enrique arrived at a new one. The King of
Portugal at that time, clearly not an exploration enthusiast as Prince Henry
was, laughed at Magellan's idea of sailing west instead of east to get to the
Spice Islands. At the same time, news had spread of the Spanish explorer Balboa
crossing Central America by land and discovering the vast Pacific Ocean. With
Enrique at his side, Magellan secretly sought the aid of the King of Spain. By
staging a Malayan dialogue between Enrique and a Sumatran slave-girl, he successfully
presented the idea of circumnavigating the world to the court of Balboa's
subsidizer. Having never heard nor seen anyone as exotic as Enrique, the King
of Spain was both intrigued and delighted.
He provided Magellan with five ships, (the
Santiago, the San Antonio, the Trinidad, the Concepcion, and the Victoria) and
Spanish and other European sailors for his voyage. Magellan's crew consisted of
227 men, whose experience and talents in sailing varied greatly. Magellan's
brother-in-law Duarte Barbosa, Juan Elcano, and Joao Serrano were the among the
senior officers of the fleet. Enrique was listed as supernumerary on the
Trinidad and highly paid at 1,500 maravedis per month. In addition he received
an advance of 6,000 maravedis. Except for those Captains and senior officer his
allowance was only exceeded by the ship's surgeon and the master's at arms. But
there was also Pigafetta, an Italian Lombard who was perhaps the most educated
of the crew.
If a loving relationship could never exist
between a master and slave, Magellan and Enrique certainly defied the
impossible. Magellan was a very faithful Christian and his religious mind
struggled with the idea of slavery, especially for Christians. In his will,
Magellan provided freedom and relief of all obligations for his slave Enrique,
as well as some money. Enrique grew to love his master and served him
faithfully for the many years they shared and struggled together. The two
developed an unusual relationship consisting of mutual respect and affection.
"Let us go in the name of God," shouted
Magellan from a bridge when he and his crew finally left Seville, Spain and
begin their expedition on September of 1519. They easily crossed the Atlantic
Ocean, an ocean already navigated but not nearly big enough to prepare for
crossing of the vast Pacific.
They reached Brazil and Enrique, now past twenty
years of age, quickly assured his master that this was not his homeland. Brazil
was clearly not a 'land of lotus-eaters,' where spice would grow without much
labor. But just as Magellan was a champion explorer for his race, Enrique was
for his. Upon their arrival to Brazil, Enrique became the first of his kind to
reach the Americas. This journey was not only a continual moment of discovery for
the Europeans, but for the Malay people as well. While there, a native
Brazilian woman presented Carvalho a seven-year-old boy named Joazito. He
acknowledged the boy as his son, borne from his previous journey to the
continent. Magellan allowed the boy, nicknamed Ninito, to join the armada with
As the crew sailed south looking for a passage to
the other side of the Americas, they stopped in Patagonia, what is now
Argentina. Of all the tribes in the area, the most formidable, the most legendary,
were the Tehuelche - known to be a gargantuan Indian race. Magellan and his men
reacted to these people in fear and tricked these people into chains. Some were
even forced into joining the expedition, more foreigners unknowingly and
unwillingly forced to make history of their own. As the expedition continued
their search to the other side of the Americas, they encountered starvation,
disease, and more hostile people. Taking on a larger crew proved ill-judged,
for the merchants in Seville had cheated Magellan out of the provision they
carried onboard. Only after the crew had weakened and diminished did they find
the secret to westward voyage, a strait that crosses the continent, later named
With the vast Pacific Ocean ahead, Magellan
decided to steer the ships North towards the equator to avoid the cold
Antarctic winds. Not only that, Magellan knew very well that the Spice Islands
were on the same latitude as the equator. Still, he directed the ships even
further north. Enrique, still a rather quiet player in this history-making
event, knew about a group of islands very close to his home. With the education
that Magellan generously provided for the young man, or perhaps with some
innate knowledge of these islands, Enrique may have suggested to sail a little
further north to reach them. Upon reaching the new latitude, they ventured
west, companion to friendlier winds.
The Malay people, like the Europeans, were
adventurous, and exploration and discovery were not unknown to them. It has
been said that even a millenium before Magellan's fateful trip, the Malay had
crossed the Pacific, traveling east from the other side. Perhaps not so heavily
funded, perhaps with not quite as many crew and provisions, the primitive but
brave expedition that the Malay people sent had landed itself on another island
across the Pacific. The rugged and temperamental journey allowed only the most
well endowed and toughest sailors to survive. On the 100th day of his journey,
Magellan led his expedition without food now for few days to that island, now
known as Guam, and encountered this group of heavyset people. These people were
surprisingly as dark as Enrique, differing from him only in their build.
Magellan's crew was close to starvation at this point. The two captive giant
slaves did not survive the journey. But Enrique, seeing the familiar tan of the
Guam people, sensed that they were near his home. He also observed the large
ocean going outrigger on the harbor very similar to his ancestor's ships. With
more provisions and yet another captive slave, the journey continued west.
After the losing the Santiago in a wreck at the
tip of South America and the desertion of the San Antonio, the remaining three
ships, the Trinidad, the Concepcion, and the Victoria, reached Homonhon Island,
(in the group of islands now known as the Philippines,) on March 16, 1521.
There, the new Guam slave taught the Europeans the techniques for fishing and
hunting in the Pacific. A threat appeared as ten armed men on a canoe
approached their ships, but they evoked a friendly spirit. Enrique, always the
helpful interpreter, made equally friendly efforts to communicate with them.
Unfortunately, he could not understand their language.
However, Enrique's amiability was not in vain.
Several days later, the King of the island himself, adorned with gold
ornaments, greeted them. Upon seeing such gold lavishings, a small feeling of
greed arose the Spanish members of the crew. Magellan, demonstrating focus on
his goal, a general moral Christian quality, and more importantly, an
understanding of negotiation, warned his crew not to act to excited about the
On the night of March 25, Pigaffeta fell into the
water. He was evidently not a trained sailor, lacking the mere ability to swim
even after travelling halfway the world. His presence in the voyage was still a
great blessing to the world's history, for he provided the only written account
of Magellan's long and famous journey. He started to compile lists of the native
words he brought to Europe. H wrote the customs and habit he observed like
kissing hands of the elders and person of nobility..
The ships headed toward a nearby land called
Mazzava Island, still within the same group of islands. Another small boat of
eight men approached them. Discouraged from the language barrier that he
confronted at Homonhon, Enrique did not think they would understand him. To his
surprise, his greeting in Malay dialect was returned. Reluctant to enter, the
small boat stayed by the ship. Enrique was amazed at the fact that he could
communicate with the people as they surrounded him, chattering, because he
didn't quite realize why he could understand him. He had made it all the way
around the world, back to Malay homeland that he left 12 years earlier, making
him the first man to do so. Enrique's conversation with the Mazzava people
definitively confirmed that the earth was round, not by what he was saying, but
by the language with which he spoke. Magellan knew that he was close to
reaching his goal, since he was once again amongst the Malay speakers.
Enrique, filled with excitement at being able to
converse in his own language again, did not forget his obligation to his master
and friend. He knew the natives' customs, relaying them to Magellan. Magellan,
wishing to be a true ambassador, sought to gain acceptance from these people.
In order to earn their trust, Magellan fastened a bright red cap and some gifts
to a piece of wood and tossed it into the water as a peace offering. The people
received the gifts, and they went to advise their king. A few hours later, two
large native boats (called barangini) appeared filled with men, including their
king. Enrique spoke his Malay dialect again, and the king himself replied. More
comfortable with the newcomers, due to familiarity with Enrique, the king
ordered some of his men to board the Spanish ships. Magellan and his crew
established good relations with the natives and docked their fleet.
Perceiving how the natives were comfortable with
Enrique, Magellan sent him as an emissary to the people. It was evident that
they would be more likely to communicate with their own brown-skinned kind than
with the white men in ghastly armor. Magellan's only worry, though an odd one,
was that he would not be able to distinguish Enrique from the rest of them,
especially if Enrique were in a similar loincloth. This was the land of
Enrique's ancestors; to Magellan, they were all family. Ironically, Magellan
desired the natives to distinguish between the Spanish and the Portuguese.
Magellan sent Enrique the next day, Good Friday, with a formal greeting and
gift glass beakers for their Rajah-King. Magellan himself exclaimed, "I am
now in the land I hoped to reach!"
Enrique's tongue also remembered the native wine.
According to a logbook on the ship, he celebrated his return home with a
"drunken spree." He still fulfilled his obligation and acted as an
emissary to the King. He explained that his crew had come as friends and that
they wanted to buy some supplies. Because of all of Magellan's gifts, the King
was already convinced of this. He presented Magellan with food supplies as well
as native escorts to another nearby island called Cebu, which was an
established trading port in the region. He even helped Magellan dress his ships
to be immediately welcomed by Cebu.
It was an odd, almost ungainly sight that slowly
sailed toward Cebu. Confused natives gathered on the shore watching the ships
as they approached. The crew of a Chinese junk ship, also docked at Cebu,
suspended their business for a moment to also behold the view. It was unlike
anything the Cebu people had seen before. The familiar dress lines and colors
of a typical friendly vessel of the Pacific was gaudily draped over European
ships, ships completely foreign to them. Was this going to be like a Trojan
Horse? The natives knew not whether to run or to welcome. Inside the ships,
however, was a proud and excited crew. Magellan did have much to be proud of:
successful negotiations with foreigners, his goal within his grasp... Enrique,
hardly a boy now, stood by Magellan, equally ecstatic for he was finally home.
He was a boon to Magellan and he was happy about that as well. The enthusiastic
crew, perhaps overestimating the formal and native dress of their ships, did
what they thought was the next best thing. They fired the ships' guns in
Native boat with the house onboard
The natives quickly sped back into the village,
fleeing inland to the safety. Only something dangerous and deadly could make
such a loud noise as that. Formal and friendly dress aside, those ships were
just too strange for them to welcome without concern. The news spread quickly
in Cebu, what with natives running so quickly back into town. What were they to
do about the clownish vessels that just docked onto their island? A young man
came forward, but he was not like the rest of them. Enrique had found his way
to the village from the shore. He explained, in a language that they were
surprise to understand, that the ships had come in peace. Much like the garbs
of their local Pacific vessels, the gun salute was a custom of Magellan's fleet
to make their friendly intentions known to the local rulers. Enrique, already
comfortable and adept at starting negotiations between his master and his
native people, convinced the Cebu people and their King to meet with Magellan.
The Cebu leader, a Malay Rajah, did not appear as
approachable as all the other kings Magellan had seen. The Cebu people, being
at the hub of the archipelago's trade, were very acquainted with foreigners and
knew how to demand respect as well as fear and awe. Their leader, short, fat,
and brown, sat on a grass divan, unbothered. He was wearing a yellow turban and
loincloth. His jewelry, pearls and gold rings, spoke for one who was very
experienced with trade. His high cheekbones, flat nose, and intricately
tattooed torso revealed his importance, as did the 12 rows of similarly dressed
chiefs that stood behind him.
In addition to the leader and his chiefs, an Arab trader was standing nearby. Dressed in a silk turban and sash, cotton shoes and pants, he spelled business and may have been annoyed by the interruption of Magellan's obtrusive arrival. Enrique, still embodying knowledge of the diversity in his old Malay region, recognized the trader as Siamese, most likely the owner of the Chinese ship in the harbor. It was quite evident that the Europeans weren't the first foreigners here. The Chinese and the Moslems, just west of these islands, had apparently established trade for many years. Magellan may have felt a slight envy at the bond of familiarity that appeared between this trader and the king. The religious influence of the Muslims had not reached the area nor any strong religious bound . Magellan sensed opportunity. How can he compete without sharing the same God? History making, despite disappointment, marched onward. The two universal religions, Christianity and Muslim, had crawled around opposite sides of the world from the Middle East to finally cross at this point, with Magellan's encounter with the Arab trader.
Enrique, determined to not be intimidated by the
foreboding appearance of the king and his chiefs, presented the prospect of
setting up trade to provide for the European sailors. The Europeans greatly
underestimated the extent of Cebu's commerce and were at first delighted with
the Rajah's acquiescence. The worldly Rajah then demonstrated the complexity of
his trade system and reminded them of the standard commercial trading charges.
Enrique was taken aback by the Rajah's gall to
charge the European explorers, although it is to be expected from an
experienced trade leader. The Rajah had power and knew it. Little did the Rajah
realize that this power, as strong as it is, was confined to less than half the
world. The Europeans had navies, territories, trading posts on far reaching
parts of the world, and this little Rajah demanded trading charges. Although
Enrique probably had more of a blood relationship with this Rajah, he still
knew whom he had to support. Enrique immediately refused, confident that Magellan's
men could support the refusal with harsh fighting. He let the Rajah know this,
and also told him that when it came to Magellan and his men, the Rajah would
have to make an exception to his standard commercial trading charges. The Rajah
was a bit stirred by the jarring attack on his power, but, finally making his
presence known, the Arab trader of the junk ship intervened. The Arab informed
the Rajah King of these white men, enlightening the Rajah on the kind of power
that they held. He also told him that, in addition to conquering everyone else,
they treated everyone fair. Enrique, upon hearing the Arab speak, realized that
he was talking about the Portuguese, who were battling for trade, and not the
Spanish, who were sailing to propagate the Christian faith. The Arab, however,
convinced the Rajah of the seriousness of the Europeans' power, and Enrique
avoided mentioning the distinction. The Rajah King finally made the exception
for Magellan and his men. The three freely discussed the situation in Siamese,
the Arab's language, since Enrique had picked it up years ago in Malaca and the
Rajah, like more of the local kings, knew more than one dialect.
The Rajah was impressed by the Spanish weapons
and, actually seeing that the Arab spoke truthfully, consented to an alliance.
Magellan renamed the island groups. The Rajah even allowed himself to be
baptized a Christian and renamed, the Rajah Charles, Christian King of the
Archipelago of St.Lazarus. Eager to embrace Christianity, the other tribal chiefs
made it easy for all their subjects to convert. A large baptism occurred on the
town square on the 14th day of April 1521. Living up to the Spanish mission,
Magellan wore a white robe and presented the first group of newly baptized
women with a picture of the smiling Christ Child, the Santo Nino. Indeed, the
Muslims had a great influence over the group of islands, and had Magellan
landed further north he would have encountered it. However, unlike in Sulu and
Manila, there was no big Muslim stronghold in Cebu and conversion was easy,
except when it came to Cilalapulapu.
For the chiefs that weren't so easily convinced
of the Spanish superiority, and consequently reluctant to accept the Christian
religion, Magellan used more violent forms to sway their opinions. He
threatened to kill and take the property of anyone who refused to renounce old
religions and honor the new Christian King. Such a threat was convincing enough
for most, but Cilalapulapu (aka Lapu-lapu,) chief of the island of Mactan continued
to openly oppose Magellan. Magellan lived up to his decree and sent a
detachment of men to Lapu-lapu's capital with orders to burn it down. Magellan
planned the violent annihilation to be an example of the punishment others
would receive if they failed to pay respect to the new Christian King.
Lapu-lapu, however, was willing to demonstrate the strong military reputation
he held amongst the people in the area.
Awaiting military reinforcements, Lapu-lapu
requested Magellan to wait until the following day before attacking. Puzzled,
the captain concluded that the native leader was employing bit of preliminary
psychological warfare. He assumed that it was an invitation to entrapment,
where Magellan's crew, already handicapped by unfamiliarity with the site,
could fall into pits dug by Lapu-lapu's men in the darker hours.
The following day, on the shore of Mactan, Magellan and his men confront the natives of
Lapu-lapu's island. Greatly underestimating the
strength of the natives and the unexpected use of fierce canines, Magellan
believed that the modern Spanish armor and weaponry were enough to protect
them, even in close combat. Determined to defend their island, their culture,
and their beliefs, Lapu-lapu's men outnumbered and outwitted Magellan's men.
Later developed as a Southeast Asian battle tactic, they pulled the battle away
from the water, greatly decreasing the Spanish advantage of sea warfare. Low
tides disabled the boats from closing in on the islands and attacking from the
shore with modern weaponry.
With intimate knowledge of their island, the
Mactan natives dominated the land battle. Seeing the superiority of the
Mactans, the Spanish crew got scared. Many of them fearfully broke ranks with
Magellan and began to retreat. Only a handful of the crew, including Magellan,
Pigafetta, and Enrique, bravely fought to the end. The native warriors used
such primitive weapons, stones and poisonous spears, but used them the most
practical fashion, hurling them at the unprotected legs of the intruders. Such
simplicity proved to be their advantage. Some of the warriors even picked up
the same spear and threw it five or six times, ultimately slaughtering their
victims. This was the fate that Magellan suffered.
Though brutally wounded, Magellan bravely covered
his allies as they headed back across the beach. Forty armored Spanish sat
safely and dejectedly in boats only few hundred yards away, cowardly watching
the slaughter. Even though Magellan thoughtfully never asked for the islanders'
help, some Christianized natives attempted to come to his aid to save him. At
the same time, the panicky Spaniard started firing culverin salvoes ashore.
They miscalculated and hit the rescuing natives instead. The battle was iced as
a victory for the Mactans, for the Spanish leader Magellan, was completely
down. Wounded in the face, he died there on the beach with his sword lanced at
his attacker. The other Spanish watched from their boats at the battle. When
the battle finally ended, the Mactan natives lost 15 men, while the Spanish
lost 20. Unfortunately, one of those 20 was their courageous leader and
history-making explorer Magellan, who was undeservedly abandoned by his crew
and left to die on the beach. Considering it a token of his victory, Lapu-lapu
kept Magellan's body though the weeping Christian King made efforts to ransom
Magellan's death affected no one more deeply than his loyal servant Enrique. The wounds that he acquired during the same battle in which his master had died didn't hurt his body as much as the death hurt his spirit. Senor Duarte Barbosa assumed command of the leaderless crew, and insisted
that the mission continue. The new commander had held a grudge against Magellan's companion ever since Magellan had humiliated Barbosa with punishment. Barbosa needed trade negotiations to go on, and Enrique was the only one who could serve as an envoy and interpreter. Still seeing
Enrique as a mere slave, he tried to force
Magellan's servant to maintain the relations with the natives that were still
on the Spanish side. But Enrique was loyal to no one but Magellan, and he
ignored Barbosa's condescending commands. In anger, Barbosa beat and kicked the
Malay native, threatening to enslave him again when they returned to Seville,
despite Magellan's promise of freedom in his will. Barbosa envisioned for
Enrique a life of servitude for Lady Biatriz Magellan.
There was no reason to support Barbosa or
Serrano, who also arose as a leader of the crew, both traitors for allowing
Magellan, a very able commander, to die there on the shore of Mactan. Clearly
unable to shift his affection from his loving master to a hateful new one,
Enrique turned to the next best people, his kin.
Enrique went ashore to deliver a communication
from Barborasa to the Christian king. His felt no obligation and the Rajah King
was first disturbed by Enrique's advice: to take advantage of the weakened
Spaniard fleet and retrieve their treasure. How could such deviance come from a
Malay native that appeared to be so allied with the Spanish? Where was
Enrique's loyalty? The Rajah king recognized Enrique's true devotion, that to
his leader Magellan. Enrique briefed the Rajah of the Spaniard's plan of
transferring the goods stored in the island and sailing the next day. Recalling
the cowardice of fleeing Spaniards from natives and the ineffectiveness of
their weaponry and armor, the Rajah King agreed to Enrique's plan. Barbosa,
with a grudge and a sense of betrayal, lost trust in Enrique. He greedily
planned to move the unsold goods from the island warehouses and load them onto
their ships. As this plan was enacted, a court servant ran to report the sudden
Spanish move to the natives and the King of Cebu.
To Barbosa's surprise, the King invited all the
Spaniards senior officers for a farewell banquet, where Barbosa and his men
would be given jewels to bring to the Emperor of Spain as a sign of peace.
Accepting the invitation, Barbosa and his men dressed in their dinner attire,
arrived at the joyous banquet, excited at the generous offerings. Carvallo saw
the native prince who was miraculously healed few days earlier throught the
effort of Padre Valderamma speaking to the priest. Padre Valderamma was invited
to the house separating him from the rest of the party. He told Espinosa of his
suspicion and they both returned to the ship. As the rest enjoyed the feast,
the Cebu natives attacked all the Spanish that came ashore, sparing only
Enrique. It was a brutal sight, which Don Antonio missed because he stayed
behind treating a wound, much to Enrique's relief; Enrique still cared very
much for those who stayed true to Magellan.
The Spanish fled the slaughter, and those that
were left numbered only to 115. Without enough men for three boats, the Spanish
sacrificed the Concepcion and set it on fire. The other two ships quickly cut
anchor and sailed away, with little direction. Several small marauding boats
pursued them, aware of the Europeans' vulnerability without their captain.
The expedition that once came in the name of God turned into one that was reduced to pirating. The crew rushed to find a new Malay navigator, who could guide them back to the Spice Islands. Carvalho was selected to command and to pilot the ships back to Spain. But such a hastened departure and selection of a commander proved wasteful: instead of travelling south from the islands, they headed west toward Palawan. They pathetically pirated a royal ship from the Luzon colony in northern Malaca, which was now two days away. The three ships finally found their way to Brunie. Pigafetta enthusiastically described the magnificent city in his accounts, comparing it to his home of Venice. The Sultan of Brunie welcomed the Spaniards. Weary and disillusioned, and very experienced with treachery and betrayal, Carvalho was suspicious. Rather than returning the Sultan's open arms with kind, Carvalho and his crew attacked. Eventually, he had to flee, leaving his own son Joaozito, the first American to travel to the Far East. Even in the midst of mishappenings, groundbreaking history was being made.
under the leadership of Espinosa, the Trinidad
ricocheted across the Pacific Ocean. Espinosa and his crew sailed east toward
Panama, back the way they came. They encountered harsh winds and storms in the
mid-Pacific. After stopping briefly for repair on the island of Ladrones
(Guam,) they returned again to Malaca. There was no future for the Trinidad,
for it was then captured by the Portuguese.
On September 6, 1522, the Victoria, captained by Elcano, was the only ship to return to Spain with a crew of only 18. Being of Spanish descent, Elcano was first credited with the achievement of sailing around the world. Ignoring Magellan's accomplishments, the Spanish King celebrated
Elcano's return. The Portuguese, bitter about his
betrayal, also ignored Magellan's achievement.
An expedition by Villabos revisited the Malay
archipelago, 20 years after the Magellan expedition returned. In honor of the
crowning of Prince Philip, the son the king of Spain present during Enrique's
first visit to the Spanish royal court, the islands were renamed the
Philippines. They called the natives "Filipinos," which originally
applied to a "mestizo" in Spain. This was the beginning of the
islands' near four-century occupation by foreigners, an occupation that ended
only 100 years ago.
The faithful Enrique, avoiding the life of
slavery promised by Barbosa, stayed in Cebu; he knew he belonged with his
people, where history was really made.
Points of interest
1. The voyage proved the shape of the world to the satisfaction of the astromers. Magellan's westward circumnavigation would result in the loss of one day if the days on the journey were not adjusted on the ship's official records. The reverse is true going east. Victoria arrived in Sevelle, Spain in Sept 8, 1921 but her ship-log book faithfully kept indicated September 9. The Philippines used the same date as in Spain while the rest of the Malay region under Portuguese rule used a different date because since the Portuguese traveled from the other direction. It is interesting to note when the crewmembers compared notes during the return to Spain, they noticed a day's difference, an error that was corrected by a decree that December 31, 1844 be dropped. Thus, the International Date Line was created at 180 degrees longitude during the International Meridian Conference in 1844.
2. New Diseases that explorers brought to the New
World almost wiped out the American Indian population because the natives did
not possess a natural immunity. However, this did not occur in the Malay
Archipelago to an epidemic degree. This was due to continuous direct contact
between the European and the Asian continents. Great Emperors such as Genghis
Khan and Alexander the Great promoted the exchange of Euro-Asian trade and
culture. Trade of slaves from Africa was necessary in America did not flourish.
3. Slavery was practiced in the East Indies
before the Portuguese arrived. Some historians believe that some of Magellan's
men who remained in Cebu were not killed but sold to the Chinese or Arabs since
they were of high value. The Malay aristocratic society maintained a Chaste
System, ranging from the King to Alipin (captive slaves who were war trophies.)
Pirates also were raiding slaves along the coastal islands. Slave trading was
introduced to Europe and America later by the Portuguese. Magellan replenished
his crew with natives as he traveled. The Moorish trader they encountered in
Cebu owned a junk ship filled with oriental gold and slaves. When the only ship
arrived in Spain, there were only 17 Europeans and 4 East Indians onboard.
Enrique, of course, was not among them. The provision in Magellan's will
reflects his deep religious belief and his relationship with Enrique. Enrique
had been baptized and become his brother in faith. "I declare and ordain
that from the day of my death thenceforward for ever, my captured slave,
Enrique shall be free and manumitted, and quit, exempt, and relieved of every
obligation of slavery and subjection, that he may act as he desires and thinks
fit; and I desire that of my estate there may be given to the said Enrique the
sum of 10,000 maravedis in money for his support; and this manumission I grant
because he is a Christian and that he may pray to God for my soul."
4. The greatest naval battle in the world took
place in Leyte Gulf, where Enrique completed the first circumnavigation of the
world 423 years earlier. It was also the same location as the battle of Mactan.
The amphibious warfare tactics in Mactan were the precursor of land war in Asia
to come. The islanders drawing the western warrior inland beyond the artillery
power of the western forces.
5. Spice Islands are the Malacca or the Malay
regions now known as the Indonesian group. While in Malaca (near the present
day Singapore) Magellan met Francisco Serrao. He was the Portuguese resident in
charge of the Spice Island that Magellan was supposed to meet. Serrao was
poisoned by a rival few months before Victoria reached the Spice Island. .
Malaca has a small colony of 500 Filipinos and some believed that this was
where Magellan got Enrique.
6. The religious feud between the two universal
faiths that first met in the Philippines continues today, between the
Christianity-based central democracy and the conservative Moslem tribes in Southern
Mindinao. Western culture has taken over Manila and in the capital, not a trace
of Moslem influence exists.
The stuff below is either irrelevant or have
already been mentioned in the story.
4. Malay -Polynesian seafaring legend ruling the Pacific is true. Malay from Southeast Asia had been SURFING the Pacific Ocean ONBOARD THE POLYNESIAN OUTRIGGERS way before the Portuguese went beyond the Azores Island. They have sailed to Eastern Islands and probably some on them could have landed in the Eastern Shore of the South America. Because of harsh marine environment survival was rough. This explains the husky body feature of the Polynesian as you go farther west in the Pacific.
4. Christianity and Islam started for the Middle
east.. Basically Christian went west from there and Moslem faith traveled east
from Mecca. When Magellan Landed in Cebu..he found the moslem and the Christian
found themselves meeting. (Morison theory..He is one of the best Marine
Historian). Note: The Portuguese followed the Moslem route by going East and
around the southern tip of Africa and sailing to the Spice Islands and
defeating the Moors. Portuguese were fighting the Moors for trade and not for
the propagation of Christian faith. Portuguese were the master of Slave Trade
at that time. They brought the first slave from Africa to Europe and then to
America later as human cargo. Their early domination of the sea made it
4. Papal degree (1493) in the 15th century
divided the world between the Spanish and Portuguese. The east belonging to the
Portuguese and the west to the Spanish. The exact measurement of the earth was
still unknown but the two countries going on the opposite direction meet again
in the this first round the world trip as evident of the ship Trinidad being
captured in Malaca.
7. Malaca has a small colony of 500 Filipinos and
some believed that this was where Magellan got Enrique. They were the seafaring
Malay-Polynesian (many islands) of the Orient. Oriental meaning people from the
east , the sun rise direction relative to the western hemisphere (Europe).
Magellan way was to sail west and till they rendezvouz almost on the same place
of the Equator (Spice islands).
8. Some books .. Enrique was called "muy
ladino" by the crew meaning he is versed and has the ability to learn
language. Also while in Europe he was matched with a beautiful Sumatran slave
and some believed that she was his wife.
9. The trick in the west direction is finding the passage around the South American Continent to Pacific. The same way the East direction when Prince Henry open the route throught the Cape of Good Hope in South Africa.
Places: Philippines is between 120-130 longitude xxxx 5-20 deg latitude N
Leyte/Cebu about 125 longitude xxxx 12 deg lat N
Malacca is farther west
Molucca Isl 120-130 longitude xxx almost 0 (on the equator)
1. Magellan as the first man to go around.
Magellan having traveled eastward earlier as part of Portuguese expedition
reached east longitude east of the Philippines. While in Spice Island if he traveled
about 200 miles north he could have reached the Philippines. So even thou he
was killed in the Philippines he might traveled the length needed.
2. The first ship to go around the world is
Victoria , under the command of Sebastian Elcano. Being s Spanish descent
versus Magellan who is Portuguese had the Spain backing his title earlier. He
was one of the Spanish officers who conspire with the mutiny but was pardon by
Magellan. The King of Spain celebrated and Magellan accomplishment was ignored for
a while. Portugal hated him so he was ignored there as well.
3. Enrique is known as Enrique de Malacca because
Pigaffeta term for him. Pigafetta was never been to Malacca or with Magellan on
his previous trip to the east.. This is where Magellan base home during his
stay in the Malay archipelago. During this time Malacca was the center city of
the colony and slaves were brought and sold there. Trade dominated by the
Moslem and it is unlikely that Enrique was originally from there. It is possible
that he was a member of the Luzon colony or from the Moluccas or as far north
as the Visayan island. His palaver knowledge of some of the Visayan language
supports this theory heavily.
1. Conqueror of the Seas, Stefan Zweig..
2. The European Discovery of America (The Southern Voyages) AD 1492-1616
Samuel Eliot Morison New York Oxford University
3. Ferdinand Magellan, Hawthorne Daniel
Doubleday, Garden City 1964
4. Ferdinand Magellan, Charles Mckew Parr
5. Magellan of the Pacific, Edouard Roditi
6. Magellan, First Circumnavigation of the World, Ian Cameron
7. First Circumnavigation of the World-Pigafetta
Last Name, First Name. Name of Book or "Name of Article". Edition or Volume Number. Page Numbers. Name of Publisher. City of Publication. Copy Year.
Possible story telling flow....
introduction to Enrique
enrique speaks up..as boy--the the trip.--his point of view
Enrique pass the to Pigafetta and other historian to finish to story..
Aftermath of the Circumnavigation..
3. Malay or Pacific Islanders
4. International dateline International Date Line-Reference
Note: There is no evidence Enrique exact
birthplace. Let us assume that he is from somewhere southern philippines with
out defining it. . In the beginning I said that we (readers)will find where he
came from. They will have to make the conclusion when he speaks the native
language of the second Island the visited in the Philippines.
When the epic making voyage left Spain.....
Enrique has the lead.. since his starting point was in the Malay Archipelago.
When the Spanish returned , they accupied the
Philippines for almost 400 years ended 100 years ago start of the country's
centennial year of independence...
Nestor Palugod Enriquez